kubeadm v1.18.0 HA

Posted by 小炒肉 on March 30, 2020

kubeadm v1.18.0

kubernetes 1.18.0

本文基于 kubeadm 方式部署,kubeadm 在1.13 版本以后正式进入 GA.

目前国内各大厂商都有 kubeadm 的镜像源,对于部署 kubernetes 来说是大大的便利.

从官方对 kubeadm 的更新频繁度来看,kubeadm 应该是后面的趋势,毕竟二进制部署确实麻烦了点.

1. 环境说明

系统 IP Containerd Kernel hostname 备注
Aws Linux 10.18.77.61 19.03.6-ce 4.14.171 k8s-node-3 Master
Aws Linux 10.18.77.117 19.03.6-ce 4.14.171 k8s-node-1 Master or node
Aws Linux 10.18.77.218 19.03.6-ce 4.14.171 k8s-node-2 Master or node

1.1 初始化环境

1.1.1 配置 hosts

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hostnamectl --static set-hostname hostname
hostnamectl --transient set-hostname hostname

k8s-node-1  10.18.77.61
k8s-node-2  10.18.77.117
k8s-node-3  10.18.77.218
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#编辑 /etc/hosts 文件,配置hostname 通信

vi /etc/hosts

10.18.77.61   k8s-node-1
10.18.77.117  k8s-node-2
10.18.77.218  k8s-node-3

1.1.2 关闭防火墙

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sed -ri 's#(SELINUX=).*#\1disabled#' /etc/selinux/config
setenforce 0
systemctl disable firewalld
systemctl stop firewalld

1.1.3 关闭虚拟内存

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# 临时关闭

swapoff -a

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# 永久关闭

vi /etc/fstab 

注释掉关于 swap 的一段

1.1.4 添加内核配置

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# 开启内核 namespace 支持

grubby --args="user_namespace.enable=1" --update-kernel="$(grubby --default-kernel)"


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# 修改内核参数

cat<<EOF > /etc/sysctl.d/docker.conf
net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-arptables = 1
vm.swappiness=0
EOF


# 生效配置

sysctl --system



# 重启系统
reboot

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# 添加 kubernetes 内核优化

cat<<EOF > /etc/sysctl.d/kubernetes.conf
# conntrack 连接跟踪数最大数量
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_max = 10485760 
# 允许送到队列的数据包的最大数目
net.core.netdev_max_backlog = 10000
# ARP 高速缓存中的最少层数
net.ipv4.neigh.default.gc_thresh1 = 80000
# ARP 高速缓存中的最多的记录软限制
net.ipv4.neigh.default.gc_thresh2 = 90000
# ARP 高速缓存中的最多记录的硬限制
net.ipv4.neigh.default.gc_thresh3 = 100000
EOF


# 生效配置

sysctl --system

1.1.5 配置IPVS模块

kube-proxy 使用 ipvs 方式负载 ,所以需要内核加载 ipvs 模块, 否则只会使用 iptables 方式

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cat > /etc/sysconfig/modules/ipvs.modules <<EOF
#!/bin/bash
modprobe -- ip_vs
modprobe -- ip_vs_rr
modprobe -- ip_vs_wrr
modprobe -- ip_vs_sh
modprobe -- nf_conntrack_ipv4
EOF



# 授权
chmod 755 /etc/sysconfig/modules/ipvs.modules 


# 加载模块
bash /etc/sysconfig/modules/ipvs.modules


# 查看加载
lsmod | grep -e ip_vs -e nf_conntrack_ipv4

# 输出如下:
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
nf_conntrack_ipv4      20480  0 
nf_defrag_ipv4         16384  1 nf_conntrack_ipv4
ip_vs_sh               16384  0 
ip_vs_wrr              16384  0 
ip_vs_rr               16384  0 
ip_vs                 147456  6 ip_vs_rr,ip_vs_sh,ip_vs_wrr
nf_conntrack          110592  2 ip_vs,nf_conntrack_ipv4
libcrc32c              16384  2 xfs,ip_vs
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

1.1.6 配置yum源

使用 阿里 的 yum 源

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cat << EOF > /etc/yum.repos.d/kubernetes.repo
[kubernetes]
name=Kubernetes
baseurl=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/repos/kubernetes-el7-x86_64/
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
repo_gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/yum-key.gpg https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/rpm-package-key.gpg
EOF




# 更新 yum

yum makecache

2. 安装 docker

2.1 检查系统

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curl -s https://raw.githubusercontent.com/docker/docker/master/contrib/check-config.sh | bash

2.2 安装 docker

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# 清除缓存
yum makecache


yum -y install docker

  • 因为 aws linux 不支持如下安装: 如下支持 ubuntu, debain, centos, rhel
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# 指定安装,并指定安装源

export VERSION=19.03
curl -fsSL "https://get.docker.com/" | bash -s -- --mirror Aliyun

2.3 配置 docker

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mkdir -p /etc/docker/

cat>/etc/docker/daemon.json<<EOF
{
  "bip": "172.17.0.1/16",
  "exec-opts": ["native.cgroupdriver=systemd"],
  "registry-mirrors": ["https://9jwx2023.mirror.aliyuncs.com"],
  "data-root": "/opt/docker",
  "storage-driver": "overlay2",
  "storage-opts": [
    "overlay2.override_kernel_check=true"
  ],
  "log-driver": "json-file",
  "log-opts": {
    "max-size": "100m",
    "max-file": "5"
  },
  "dns-search": ["default.svc.cluster.local", "svc.cluster.local", "localdomain"],
  "dns-opts": ["ndots:2", "timeout:2", "attempts:2"]
}
EOF

2.4 启动docker

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systemctl enable docker
systemctl start docker
systemctl status docker

docker info

3. 部署 kubernetes

3.1 安装相关软件

所有软件安装都通过 yum 安装

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# kubernetes 相关 (Master)
yum -y install tc kubelet-1.18.0 kubeadm-1.18.0 kubectl-1.18.0


# kubernetes 相关 (Node)
yum -y install tc kubelet-1.18.0 kubeadm-1.18.0


# ipvs 相关
yum -y install ipvsadm ipset 

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# 配置 kubelet 自动启动 (暂时不需要启动)

systemctl enable kubelet.service

  • 配置 kubectl 命令补全
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# 安装 bash-completion

yum -y install bash-completion


# Linux 默认脚本路径为 /usr/share/bash-completion/bash_completion

 
# 配置 bashrc
vi ~/.bashrc

# 添加如下:


# kubectl
source /usr/share/bash-completion/bash_completion
source <(kubectl completion bash)
 

# 生效配置
source ~/.bashrc

3.2 修改证书期限

  • 默认基本证书的有效期为1年
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# 下载源码

git clone https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes

Cloning into 'kubernetes'...
remote: Enumerating objects: 219, done.
remote: Counting objects: 100% (219/219), done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (128/128), done.
remote: Total 1087208 (delta 112), reused 91 (delta 91), pack-reused 1086989
Receiving objects: 100% (1087208/1087208), 668.66 MiB | 486.00 KiB/s, done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (777513/777513), done.


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# 查看分支
cd kubernetes

git branch -a

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查看当前的分支
git branch


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# 切换到相关的分支
git checkout remotes/origin/release-1.18

  • 修改 cert.go 文件
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# 打开文件
vi staging/src/k8s.io/client-go/util/cert/cert.go

# 如下 默认已经是10年,可不修改,也可以修改99年,但是不能超过100年

NotAfter:              now.Add(duration365d * 10).UTC(),


  • 修改 constants.go 文件
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# 打开文件
vi cmd/kubeadm/app/constants/constants.go

# 如下 默认是 1年, 修改为 10 年 

CertificateValidity = time.Hour * 24 * 365

# 修改为

CertificateValidity = time.Hour * 24 * 365 * 10
  • 重新编译 kubeadm
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make all WHAT=cmd/kubeadm GOFLAGS=-v

  • 拷贝 覆盖 kubeadm

    • 拷贝到所有的 master 中
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# 编译后生成目录为 _output/local/bin/linux/amd64

cp _output/local/bin/linux/amd64/kubeadm /usr/bin/kubeadm


cp: overwrite ‘/usr/bin/kubeadm’? y

3.3 修改 kubeadm 配置信息

  • 打印 kubeadm init 的 yaml 配置

    • kubeadm config print init-defaults

    • kubeadm config print init-defaults --component-configs KubeletConfiguration

    • kubeadm config print init-defaults --component-configs KubeProxyConfiguration

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# 导出 配置 信息

kubeadm config print init-defaults > kubeadm-init.yaml

  • 文中配置的 127.0.0.1 均为后续配置的 Nginx Api 代理ip

    • advertiseAddress: 10.18.77.218bindPort: 5443 为程序绑定的地址与端口

    • controlPlaneEndpoint: "127.0.0.1:6443" 为实际访问 ApiServer 的地址

    • 这里这样配置是为了维持 Apiserver 的HA, 所以每个机器上部署一个 Nginx 做4层代理 ApiServer

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# 修改相关配置,本文配置信息如下


apiVersion: kubeadm.k8s.io/v1beta2
bootstrapTokens:
- groups:
  - system:bootstrappers:kubeadm:default-node-token
  token: abcdef.0123456789abcdef
  ttl: 24h0m0s
  usages:
  - signing
  - authentication
kind: InitConfiguration
localAPIEndpoint:
  # ApiServer 程序绑定的 ip, 填写网卡实际ip
  advertiseAddress: 10.18.77.61
  # ApiServer 程序绑定的端口,修改为5443是为怕跟下面不冲突
  bindPort: 5443
nodeRegistration:
  criSocket: /var/run/dockershim.sock
  name: k8s-node-1
  taints:
  - effect: NoSchedule
    key: node-role.kubernetes.io/master
---
apiServer:
  # apiserver相关配置
  extraArgs:
    # 审计日志相关配置
    audit-log-maxage: "20"
    audit-log-maxbackup: "10"
    audit-log-maxsize: "100"
    audit-log-path: "/var/log/kube-audit/audit.log"
    audit-policy-file: "/etc/kubernetes/audit-policy.yaml"
    audit-log-format: json
  # 开启审计日志配置, 所以需要将宿主机上的审计配置
  extraVolumes:
  - name: "audit-config"
    hostPath: "/etc/kubernetes/audit-policy.yaml"
    mountPath: "/etc/kubernetes/audit-policy.yaml"
    readOnly: true
    pathType: "File"
  - name: "audit-log"
    hostPath: "/var/log/kube-audit"
    mountPath: "/var/log/kube-audit"
    pathType: "DirectoryOrCreate"
  timeoutForControlPlane: 4m0s
apiVersion: kubeadm.k8s.io/v1beta2
certificatesDir: /etc/kubernetes/pki
clusterName: kubernetes
# Api Server 实际访问地址
controlPlaneEndpoint: "127.0.0.1:6443"
controllerManager: {}
dns:
  type: CoreDNS
etcd:
  local:
    # Etcd Volume 本地路径,最好修改为独立的磁盘
    dataDir: /var/lib/etcd
imageRepository: registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/google_containers
kind: ClusterConfiguration
kubernetesVersion: v1.18.0
networking:
  dnsDomain: cluster.local
  # K8s Pod ip地址的取值范围
  podSubnet: 10.253.0.0/16
  # K8s Svc ip地址的取值范围
  serviceSubnet: 10.254.0.0/16
scheduler: {}
---
# kubelet 相关配置
apiVersion: kubelet.config.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: KubeletConfiguration
clusterDNS:
# coredns 默认ip地址
- 10.96.0.10
# 如下为 NodeLocal DNSCache 默认主机地址
#- 169.254.20.10
clusterDomain: cluster.local
---
# kube-proxy 相关配置
apiVersion: kubeproxy.config.k8s.io/v1alpha1
kind: KubeProxyConfiguration
mode: "ipvs"
ipvs:
  minSyncPeriod: 5s
  syncPeriod: 5s
  # 加权轮询调度
  scheduler: "wrr"

  • 创建审计策略文件
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vi /etc/kubernetes/audit-policy.yaml


apiVersion: audit.k8s.io/v1 # This is required.
kind: Policy
omitStages:
  - "RequestReceived"
rules:
  - level: RequestResponse
    resources:
    - group: ""
      resources: ["pods"]
  - level: Metadata
    resources:
    - group: ""
      resources: ["pods/log", "pods/status"]

  - level: None
    resources:
    - group: ""
      resources: ["configmaps"]
      resourceNames: ["controller-leader"]

  - level: None
    users: ["system:kube-proxy"]
    verbs: ["watch"]
    resources:
    - group: "" # core API group
      resources: ["endpoints", "services"]

  - level: None
    userGroups: ["system:authenticated"]
    nonResourceURLs:
    - "/api*" # Wildcard matching.
    - "/version"

  - level: Request
    resources:
    - group: "" # core API group
      resources: ["configmaps"]
    namespaces: ["kube-system"]

  - level: Metadata
    resources:
    - group: "" # core API group
      resources: ["secrets", "configmaps"]

  - level: Request
    resources:
    - group: "" # core API group
    - group: "extensions" # Version of group should NOT be included.

  - level: Metadata
    omitStages:
      - "RequestReceived"


3.4 配置 Nginx Proxy

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# 创建配置目录
mkdir -p /etc/nginx

# 写入代理配置
cat << EOF >> /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
error_log stderr notice;

worker_processes auto;
events {
  multi_accept on;
  use epoll;
  worker_connections 1024;
}

stream {
    upstream kube_apiserver {
        least_conn;
        server 10.18.77.61:5443;
        server 10.18.77.117:5443;
        server 10.18.77.218:5443;
    }

    server {
        listen        0.0.0.0:6443;
        proxy_pass    kube_apiserver;
        proxy_timeout 10m;
        proxy_connect_timeout 1s;
    }
}
EOF

  • 授权
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# 更新权限
chmod +r /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
  • 创建系统 systemd.service 文件
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cat << EOF >> /etc/systemd/system/nginx-proxy.service
[Unit]
Description=kubernetes apiserver docker wrapper
Wants=docker.socket
After=docker.service

[Service]
User=root
PermissionsStartOnly=true
ExecStart=/usr/bin/docker run -p 127.0.0.1:6443:6443 \\
                              -v /etc/nginx:/etc/nginx \\
                              --name nginx-proxy \\
                              --net=host \\
                              --restart=on-failure:5 \\
                              --memory=512M \\
                              nginx:alpine
ExecStartPre=-/usr/bin/docker rm -f nginx-proxy
ExecStop=/usr/bin/docker stop nginx-proxy
Restart=always
RestartSec=15s
TimeoutStartSec=30s

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF
  • 启动 Nginx Proxy
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# 启动 Nginx

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start nginx-proxy
systemctl enable nginx-proxy
systemctl status nginx-proxy

3.5 初始化集群

  • --upload-certs 会在加入 master 节点的时候自动拷贝证书
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kubeadm init --config kubeadm-init.yaml --upload-certs

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# 输出如下:

Your Kubernetes control-plane has initialized successfully!

To start using your cluster, you need to run the following as a regular user:

  mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
  sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
  sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

You should now deploy a pod network to the cluster.
Run "kubectl apply -f [podnetwork].yaml" with one of the options listed at:
  https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/cluster-administration/addons/

You can now join any number of the control-plane node running the following command on each as root:

  kubeadm join 127.0.0.1:6443 --token abcdef.0123456789abcdef \
    --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:ed09a75d84bfbb751462262757310d0cf3d015eaa45680130be1d383245354f8 \
    --control-plane --certificate-key 93cb0d7b46ba4ac64c6ffd2e9f022cc5f22bea81acd264fb4e1f6150489cd07a

Please note that the certificate-key gives access to cluster sensitive data, keep it secret!
As a safeguard, uploaded-certs will be deleted in two hours; If necessary, you can use
"kubeadm init phase upload-certs --upload-certs" to reload certs afterward.

Then you can join any number of worker nodes by running the following on each as root:

kubeadm join 127.0.0.1:6443 --token abcdef.0123456789abcdef \
    --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:ed09a75d84bfbb751462262757310d0cf3d015eaa45680130be1d383245354f8 

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# 拷贝权限文件

mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

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# 查看集群状态

[[email protected] kubeadm]# kubectl get cs
NAME                 STATUS    MESSAGE             ERROR
scheduler            Healthy   ok                  
controller-manager   Healthy   ok                  
etcd-0               Healthy   {"health":"true"} 

3.6 加入 kubernetes 集群

如上有 kubeadm init 后有两条 kubeadm join 命令, –control-plane 为 加入 Master

另外token 有时效性,如果提示 token 失效,请自行创建一个新的 token.

kubeadm token create –print-join-command 创建新的 join token

3.6.1 加入 其他 Master 节点

我这里三个服务器都是 Master 节点,所有都加入 –control-plane 的选项

  • 创建审计策略文件
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# 其他两台服务器创建

ssh k8s-node-2 "mkdir -p /etc/kubernetes/"

ssh k8s-node-3 "mkdir -p /etc/kubernetes/"

  • 拷贝策略文件
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# k8s-node-2 节点
scp /etc/kubernetes/audit-policy.yaml k8s-node-2:/etc/kubernetes/

# k8s-node-3 节点
scp /etc/kubernetes/audit-policy.yaml k8s-node-3:/etc/kubernetes/

  • 分别 join master
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# 先测试 api server 连通性
curl -k https://127.0.0.1:6443


# 返回如下信息:

{
  "kind": "Status",
  "apiVersion": "v1",
  "metadata": {
    
  },
  "status": "Failure",
  "message": "forbidden: User \"system:anonymous\" cannot get path \"/\"",
  "reason": "Forbidden",
  "details": {
    
  },
  "code": 403

  • 增加额外的配置,用于区分不用的 master 中的 apiserver-advertise-addressapiserver-bind-port
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# k8s-node-2

kubeadm join 127.0.0.1:6443 --token abcdef.0123456789abcdef \
    --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:ed09a75d84bfbb751462262757310d0cf3d015eaa45680130be1d383245354f8 \
    --control-plane --certificate-key 93cb0d7b46ba4ac64c6ffd2e9f022cc5f22bea81acd264fb4e1f6150489cd07a \
    --apiserver-advertise-address 10.18.77.117 \
    --apiserver-bind-port 5443


# k8s-node-3

kubeadm join 127.0.0.1:6443 --token abcdef.0123456789abcdef \
    --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:ed09a75d84bfbb751462262757310d0cf3d015eaa45680130be1d383245354f8 \
    --control-plane --certificate-key 93cb0d7b46ba4ac64c6ffd2e9f022cc5f22bea81acd264fb4e1f6150489cd07a \
    --apiserver-advertise-address 10.18.77.218 \
    --apiserver-bind-port 5443

  • 拷贝 config 配置文件
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mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config


3.6.2 验证 Master 节点

这里 STATUS 显示 NotReady 是因为 没有安装网络组件

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# 查看 node

[[email protected] kubeadm]# kubectl get nodes
NAME         STATUS     ROLES    AGE     VERSION
k8s-node-1   NotReady   master   106m    v1.18.0
k8s-node-2   NotReady   master   2m18s   v1.18.0
k8s-node-3   NotReady   master   63s     v1.18.0

3.6.3 配置 Master to node

  • 这里主要是让 master 直接可以运行 pods

    • 执行命令: kubectl taint node node-name node-role.kubernetes.io/master-

    • 禁止 master 运行pod kubectl taint nodes node-name node-role.kubernetes.io/master=:NoSchedule

    • 增加 ROLES 标签: kubectl label nodes localhost node-role.kubernetes.io/node=

    • 删除 ROLES 标签: kubectl label nodes localhost node-role.kubernetes.io/node-

      • ROLES 标签可以添加任意的值, 如: kubectl label nodes localhost node-role.kubernetes.io/jicki=

3.7 部署 Node 节点

  • node 节点, 直接 join 就可以
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kubeadm join 127.0.0.1:6443 --token abcdef.0123456789abcdef \
    --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:ed09a75d84bfbb751462262757310d0cf3d015eaa45680130be1d383245354f8

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# 输出如下:

This node has joined the cluster:
* Certificate signing request was sent to apiserver and a response was received.
* The Kubelet was informed of the new secure connection details.

Run 'kubectl get nodes' on the control-plane to see this node join the cluster.


3.7.1 验证 所有 节点

这里 STATUS 显示 NotReady 是因为 没有安装网络组件

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[[email protected] yaml]# kubectl get nodes
NAME         STATUS     ROLES    AGE     VERSION
k8s-node-1   NotReady   master   106m    v1.18.0
k8s-node-2   NotReady   master   2m18s   v1.18.0
k8s-node-3   NotReady   master   63s     v1.18.0
k8s-node-4   NotReady   <none>   2m46s   v1.18.0
k8s-node-5   NotReady   <none>   2m46s   v1.18.0
k8s-node-6   NotReady   <none>   2m46s   v1.18.0

3.7.2 查看验证证书

  • 这里如果后续替换的话, 所有 master 节点都需要执行如下更新命令
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# 更新证书
kubeadm alpha certs renew all

# 查看证书时间
kubeadm alpha certs check-expiration

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[[email protected] kubeadm]# kubeadm alpha certs check-expiration
CERTIFICATE                EXPIRES                  RESIDUAL TIME   CERTIFICATE AUTHORITY   EXTERNALLY MANAGED
admin.conf                 Mar 07, 2119 06:22 UTC   98y                                     no      
apiserver                  Mar 07, 2119 06:22 UTC   98y             ca                      no      
apiserver-etcd-client      Mar 07, 2119 06:22 UTC   98y             etcd-ca                 no      
apiserver-kubelet-client   Mar 07, 2119 06:22 UTC   98y             ca                      no      
controller-manager.conf    Mar 07, 2119 06:22 UTC   98y                                     no      
etcd-healthcheck-client    Mar 07, 2119 06:22 UTC   98y             etcd-ca                 no      
etcd-peer                  Mar 07, 2119 06:22 UTC   98y             etcd-ca                 no      
etcd-server                Mar 07, 2119 06:22 UTC   98y             etcd-ca                 no      
front-proxy-client         Mar 07, 2119 06:22 UTC   98y             front-proxy-ca          no      
scheduler.conf             Mar 07, 2119 06:22 UTC   98y                                     no      

CERTIFICATE AUTHORITY   EXPIRES                  RESIDUAL TIME   EXTERNALLY MANAGED
ca                      Mar 28, 2030 04:30 UTC   9y              no      
etcd-ca                 Mar 28, 2030 04:30 UTC   9y              no      
front-proxy-ca          Mar 28, 2030 04:30 UTC   9y              no      

3.8 安装网络组件

Flannel 网络组件

3.8.1 下载 Flannel yaml

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# 下载 yaml 文件

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/flannel/master/Documentation/kube-flannel.yml


3.8.2 修改 Flannel 配置

这里只需要修改 分配的 CIDR 就可以

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vi kube-flannel.yml

# 修改 pods 分配的 IP 段, 与模式 vxlan

# "Type": "vxlan" , 云上一般都不支持 host-gw 模式,一般只用于 2层网络。

# 主要是如下部分

data:
  cni-conf.json: |
    {
      "name": "cbr0",
      "cniVersion": "0.3.1",
      "plugins": [
        {
          "type": "flannel",
          "delegate": {
            "hairpinMode": true,
            "isDefaultGateway": true
          }
        },
        {
          "type": "portmap",
          "capabilities": {
            "portMappings": true
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  net-conf.json: |
    {
      "Network": "10.253.0.0/16",
      "Backend": {
        "Type": "vxlan"
      }
    }
---         
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# 导入 yaml 文件

[[email protected] flannel]# kubectl apply -f kube-flannel.yml 
podsecuritypolicy.policy/psp.flannel.unprivileged created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/flannel created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/flannel created
serviceaccount/flannel created
configmap/kube-flannel-cfg created
daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-amd64 created
daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-arm64 created
daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-arm created
daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-ppc64le created
daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-s390x created

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# 查看服务

[[email protected] flannel]# kubectl get pods -n kube-system -o wide |grep kube-flannel
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-2tw6q          1/1     Running   0          88s    10.18.77.61    k8s-node-1   <none>           <none>
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-8nrtd          1/1     Running   0          88s    10.18.77.218   k8s-node-3   <none>           <none>
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-frmk9          1/1     Running   0          88s    10.18.77.117   k8s-node-2   <none>           <none>

  • 优化 Coredns 配置

    • 根据 node 情况增加 replicas 数量

    • 最好可以 约束 coredns 的 pod 调度到不同的 node 中。kubectl edit deploy coredns -n kube-system

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kubectl scale deploy/coredns --replicas=3 -n kube-system

  • 使用 NodeLocal DNSCache

    • 官方文档 https://kubernetes.io/zh/docs/tasks/administer-cluster/nodelocaldns/

    • NodeLocal DNSCache - 通过在集群节点上作为 DaemonSet 运行 dns 缓存代理来提高集群 DNS 性能。

    • NodeLocal DNSCache - 集群中的 Pods 将可以访问在同一节点上运行的 dns 缓存代理,从而避免了iptables DNAT 规则和连接跟踪。 本地缓存代理将查询 kube-dns 服务以获取集群主机名的缓存缺失(默认为 cluster.local 后缀)。

  • NodeLocal DNSCache 架构图

NodeLocal

  • 部署 NodeLocal DNSCache

    • 建议在 kubeadm init 阶段以后就配置整体 dns

    • 如果在旧的集群部署 NodeLocal DNSCache 原来的所有应用组件建议重新部署,包括网络组建, 否则会遇到很多莫名其妙问题。

    • 如果使用 istio 的话, 会出现一些问题, 暂时还不兼容 istio , 或者是我配置上有问题。

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# 下载 YAML

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/master/cluster/addons/dns/nodelocaldns/nodelocaldns.yaml



# 修改配置
sed -i 's/k8s\.gcr\.io/jicki/g' nodelocaldns.yaml

sed -i 's/__PILLAR__LOCAL__DNS__/10\.254\.0\.10/g' nodelocaldns.yaml 

sed -i 's/__PILLAR__DNS__SERVER__/169\.254\.20\.10/g' nodelocaldns.yaml

sed -i 's/__PILLAR__DNS__DOMAIN__/cluster\.local/g' nodelocaldns.yaml


# __PILLAR__DNS__SERVER__  -设置为 coredns svc 的 IP。
# __PILLAR__LOCAL__DNS__   -设置为本地链接IP(默认为169.254.20.10)。
# __PILLAR__DNS__DOMAIN__  -设置为群集域(默认为cluster.local)。



# 创建服务

[[email protected] kubeadm]# kubectl apply -f nodelocaldns.yaml 


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# 查看服务

[[email protected] kubeadm]# kubectl get pods -n kube-system |grep node-local-dns
node-local-dns-mfxdk                 1/1     Running   0          3m12s


[[email protected] kubeadm]# kubectl get svc -n kube-system kube-dns-upstream
NAME                TYPE        CLUSTER-IP     EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)         AGE
kube-dns-upstream   ClusterIP   10.254.45.66   <none>        53/UDP,53/TCP   23m


# 查看本地开放端口
[[email protected] kubeadm]# netstat -lan|grep 169.254.20.10
tcp        0      0 169.254.20.10:53        0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN     
udp        0      0 169.254.20.10:53        0.0.0.0:*                          

  • 修改 kubelet 使用 NodeLocal DNSCache

    • kubeadm 部署的集群, kubelet 的配置在 /var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml 中
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vi /var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml

# 修 改
clusterDNS:
- 10.254.0.10

# 修改为 本机 ip
clusterDNS:
- 169.254.20.10

  • 重启 kubelet

    • 这里也可以在 kubeadm init 的阶段就配置好 NodeLocal 的ip
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# 重启 kubelet 应用dns

systemctl daemon-reload && systemctl restart kubelet

3.9 检验整体集群

3.9.1 查看 状态

所有的 STATUS 都为 Ready

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[[email protected] flannel]# kubectl get nodes
NAME         STATUS   ROLES    AGE    VERSION
k8s-node-1   Ready    master   131m   v1.18.0
k8s-node-2   Ready    master   27m    v1.18.0
k8s-node-3   Ready    master   26m    v1.18.0

  • 查看 etcd 状态
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# 这里目前只有一个 etcd 节点,多个节点 就写多个就可以
export ETCDCTL_API=3


# 1
etcdctl -w table \
   --endpoints=https://k8s-node-1:2379,https://k8s-node-2:2379,https://k8s-node-3:2379 \
   --cacert=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd/ca.crt \
   --cert=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd/server.crt \
   --key=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd/server.key \
   endpoint status


+-------------------------+------------------+---------+---------+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+--------------------+--------+
|        ENDPOINT         |        ID        | VERSION | DB SIZE | IS LEADER | IS LEARNER | RAFT TERM | RAFT INDEX | RAFT APPLIED INDEX | ERRORS |
+-------------------------+------------------+---------+---------+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+--------------------+--------+
| https://k8s-node-1:2379 | 930e2b9d17050efd |   3.4.3 |  2.4 MB |      true |      false |         8 |      23258 |              23258 |        |
| https://k8s-node-2:2379 |  94853f1a64b6f05 |   3.4.3 |  2.4 MB |     false |      false |         8 |      23258 |              23258 |        |
| https://k8s-node-3:2379 | c4a2be5275d5ce12 |   3.4.3 |  2.4 MB |     false |      false |         8 |      23258 |              23258 |        |
+-------------------------+------------------+---------+---------+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+--------------------+--------+



# 2
etcdctl -w table \
   --endpoints=https://k8s-node-1:2379,https://k8s-node-2:2379,https://k8s-node-3:2379 \
   --cacert=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd/ca.crt \
   --cert=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd/server.crt \
   --key=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd/server.key \
   endpoint health


+-------------------------+--------+-------------+-------+
|        ENDPOINT         | HEALTH |    TOOK     | ERROR |
+-------------------------+--------+-------------+-------+
| https://k8s-node-1:2379 |   true | 13.300955ms |       |
| https://k8s-node-3:2379 |   true |  14.65399ms |       |
| https://k8s-node-2:2379 |   true | 17.387096ms |       |
+-------------------------+--------+-------------+-------+



# 3
etcdctl -w table \
   --endpoints=https://k8s-node-1:2379,https://k8s-node-2:2379,https://k8s-node-3:2379 \
   --cacert=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd/ca.crt \
   --cert=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd/server.crt \
   --key=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd/server.key \
   member list


+------------------+---------+------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+------------+
|        ID        | STATUS  |    NAME    |        PEER ADDRS         |       CLIENT ADDRS        | IS LEARNER |
+------------------+---------+------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+------------+
|  94853f1a64b6f05 | started | k8s-node-2 | https://10.18.77.117:2380 | https://10.18.77.117:2379 |      false |
| 930e2b9d17050efd | started | k8s-node-1 |  https://10.18.77.61:2380 |  https://10.18.77.61:2379 |      false |
| c4a2be5275d5ce12 | started | k8s-node-3 | https://10.18.77.218:2380 | https://10.18.77.218:2379 |      false |
+------------------+---------+------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+------------+

3.9.2 查看 pods 状态

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[[email protected] flannel]# kubectl get pods --all-namespaces
NAMESPACE     NAME                                 READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
kube-system   coredns-546565776c-9zbqz             1/1     Running   0          137m
kube-system   coredns-546565776c-lz5fs             1/1     Running   0          137m
kube-system   etcd-k8s-node-1                      1/1     Running   0          138m
kube-system   etcd-k8s-node-2                      1/1     Running   0          34m
kube-system   etcd-k8s-node-3                      1/1     Running   0          33m
kube-system   kube-apiserver-k8s-node-1            1/1     Running   0          138m
kube-system   kube-apiserver-k8s-node-2            1/1     Running   0          34m
kube-system   kube-apiserver-k8s-node-3            1/1     Running   0          33m
kube-system   kube-controller-manager-k8s-node-1   1/1     Running   1          138m
kube-system   kube-controller-manager-k8s-node-2   1/1     Running   0          34m
kube-system   kube-controller-manager-k8s-node-3   1/1     Running   0          33m
kube-system   kube-flannel-ds-amd64-2tw6q          1/1     Running   0          9m11s
kube-system   kube-flannel-ds-amd64-8nrtd          1/1     Running   0          9m11s
kube-system   kube-flannel-ds-amd64-frmk9          1/1     Running   0          9m11s
kube-system   kube-proxy-9qv4l                     1/1     Running   0          34m
kube-system   kube-proxy-f29dk                     1/1     Running   0          137m
kube-system   kube-proxy-zgjnf                     1/1     Running   0          33m
kube-system   kube-scheduler-k8s-node-1            1/1     Running   1          138m
kube-system   kube-scheduler-k8s-node-2            1/1     Running   0          34m
kube-system   kube-scheduler-k8s-node-3            1/1     Running   0          33m

3.9.3 查看 svc 的状态

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[[email protected] flannel]# kubectl get svc --all-namespaces
NAMESPACE     NAME         TYPE        CLUSTER-IP    EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)                  AGE
default       kubernetes   ClusterIP   10.254.0.1    <none>        443/TCP                  138m
kube-system   kube-dns     ClusterIP   10.254.0.10   <none>        53/UDP,53/TCP,9153/TCP   138m

3.9.3 查看 IPVS 的状态

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[[email protected] flannel]# ipvsadm -L -n
IP Virtual Server version 1.2.1 (size=4096)
Prot LocalAddress:Port Scheduler Flags
  -> RemoteAddress:Port           Forward Weight ActiveConn InActConn
TCP  10.254.0.1:443 wrr
  -> 10.18.77.61:5443             Masq    1      2          0         
  -> 10.18.77.117:5443            Masq    1      0          0         
  -> 10.18.77.218:5443            Masq    1      0          0         
TCP  10.254.0.10:53 wrr
  -> 10.254.64.3:53               Masq    1      0          0         
  -> 10.254.65.4:53               Masq    1      0          0         
TCP  10.254.0.10:9153 wrr
  -> 10.254.64.3:9153             Masq    1      0          0         
  -> 10.254.65.4:9153             Masq    1      0          0         
TCP  10.254.28.93:80 wrr
  -> 10.254.65.5:80               Masq    1      0          1         
  -> 10.254.66.3:80               Masq    1      0          2         
UDP  10.254.0.10:53 wrr
  -> 10.254.64.3:53               Masq    1      0          0         
  -> 10.254.65.4:53               Masq    1      0          0  

4. 测试集群

4.1 创建一个 nginx deployment

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apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment 
metadata: 
  name: nginx-dm
  labels:
    app: nginx
spec: 
  replicas: 3
  strategy:
    # 配置滚动升级策略
    type: RollingUpdate
    rollingUpdate:
      # 生成1个新的pod完成后再删除1个旧的pod
      maxSurge: 1
      # 设置最多容忍2个pods处于无法提供服务的状态
      maxUnavailable: 2
  # 控制 pod 处于就绪状态的观察时间
  # pod 在这段时间内都正常运行, 才认为新 pod 可用, 将老的 pod 删除掉。
  minReadySeconds: 120
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: nginx
  template: 
    metadata: 
      labels: 
        app: nginx 
        version: v1.0.0
    spec: 
      containers: 
        - name: nginx 
          image: nginx:alpine 
          imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
          ports:
            - containerPort: 80
              name: http
          # 资源的限制
          resources:
            limits:
              cpu: 1000m
              memory: 500Mi
            requests:
              # 1 cpu = 1000m
              cpu: 0.5
              memory: 250Mi 
          volumeMounts:
            - name: tz-config
              mountPath: /etc/localtime
              readOnly: true
          # readinessProbe - 检测pod 的 Ready 是否为 true
          # 就绪探针 如果探针判断失败,则不会有流量发往到这个pod。 
          readinessProbe:
            tcpSocket:
              port: 80
            # 启动后5s 开始检测
            initialDelaySeconds: 5  
            # 检测 间隔为 10s
            periodSeconds: 10
            # 探针探测失败后, 最少连续探测成功多少次才被认定为成功 
            successThreshold: 1
            # 探测成功后, 最少连续探测失败多少次才被认定为失败
            failureThreshold: 1
          # livenessProbe - 检测 pod 的 State 是否为 Running
          # 活性探测 如果探针判断失败, 则会重启这个 pod。
          livenessProbe:
            httpGet:
              path: /
              port: 80
            # 启动后 15s 开始检测
            # 检测时间必须在 readinessProbe 之后
            initialDelaySeconds: 15
            # 检测 间隔为 20s
            periodSeconds: 20
            # 探针探测失败后, 最少连续探测成功多少次才被认定为成功
            successThreshold: 1
            # 探测成功后, 最少连续探测失败多少次才被认定为失败
            failureThreshold: 3
      volumes:
        - name: tz-config
          hostPath:
            path: /etc/localtime
---

apiVersion: v1 
kind: Service
metadata: 
  name: nginx-svc 
  labels:
    app: nginx
spec: 
  ports: 
    - port: 80
      name: http
      targetPort: 80
      protocol: TCP 
  selector: 
    app: nginx
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# 导入文件

[[email protected] kubeadm]# kubectl apply -f nginx-deployment.yaml
deployment.apps/nginx-dm created
service/nginx-svc created

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# 查看服务
[[email protected] kubeadm]# kubectl get pods
NAME                        READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
nginx-dm-8665b6b679-lf72f   1/1     Running   0          37s
nginx-dm-8665b6b679-mqn5f   1/1     Running   0          37s


# 查看 svc
[[email protected] kubeadm]# kubectl get svc -o wide
NAME         TYPE        CLUSTER-IP      EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)   AGE    SELECTOR
kubernetes   ClusterIP   10.254.0.1      <none>        443/TCP   146m   <none>
nginx-svc    ClusterIP   10.254.23.158   <none>        80/TCP    54s    name=nginx


  • 访问 svc 与
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#  node-1 访问 svc

[[email protected] yaml]# curl 10.254.28.93
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>Welcome to nginx!</title>
<style>
    body {
        width: 35em;
        margin: 0 auto;
        font-family: Tahoma, Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;
    }
</style>
</head>
<body>
<h1>Welcome to nginx!</h1>
<p>If you see this page, the nginx web server is successfully installed and
working. Further configuration is required.</p>

<p>For online documentation and support please refer to
<a href="http://nginx.org/">nginx.org</a>.<br/>
Commercial support is available at
<a href="http://nginx.com/">nginx.com</a>.</p>

<p><em>Thank you for using nginx.</em></p>
</body>
</html>


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# node-2 访问 svc

[[email protected] ~]# curl 10.254.28.93
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>Welcome to nginx!</title>
<style>
    body {
        width: 35em;
        margin: 0 auto;
        font-family: Tahoma, Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;
    }
</style>
</head>
<body>
<h1>Welcome to nginx!</h1>
<p>If you see this page, the nginx web server is successfully installed and
working. Further configuration is required.</p>

<p>For online documentation and support please refer to
<a href="http://nginx.org/">nginx.org</a>.<br/>
Commercial support is available at
<a href="http://nginx.com/">nginx.com</a>.</p>

<p><em>Thank you for using nginx.</em></p>
</body>
</html>

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# 查看 ipvs 规则

[[email protected] yaml]# ipvsadm -L -n
IP Virtual Server version 1.2.1 (size=4096)
Prot LocalAddress:Port Scheduler Flags
  -> RemoteAddress:Port           Forward Weight ActiveConn InActConn
TCP  10.254.0.1:443 wrr
  -> 10.18.77.61:5443             Masq    1      2          0         
  -> 10.18.77.117:5443            Masq    1      0          0         
  -> 10.18.77.218:5443            Masq    1      0          0         
TCP  10.254.0.10:53 wrr
  -> 10.254.64.3:53               Masq    1      0          0         
  -> 10.254.65.4:53               Masq    1      0          0         
TCP  10.254.0.10:9153 wrr
  -> 10.254.64.3:9153             Masq    1      0          0         
  -> 10.254.65.4:9153             Masq    1      0          0         
TCP  10.254.28.93:80 wrr
  -> 10.254.65.5:80               Masq    1      0          10        
  -> 10.254.66.3:80               Masq    1      0          10        
UDP  10.254.0.10:53 wrr
  -> 10.254.64.3:53               Masq    1      0          0         
  -> 10.254.65.4:53               Masq    1      0          0 

4.2 验证 dns 的服务

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# 测试
[[email protected] kubeadm]# kubectl get pods
NAME                        READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
nginx-dm-8665b6b679-28zbw   1/1     Running   0          7m54s
nginx-dm-8665b6b679-h5rhn   1/1     Running   0          7m54s


# kubernetes 服务

[[email protected] kubeadm]# kubectl exec -it nginx-dm-8665b6b679-28zbw -- nslookup kubernetes
nslookup: can't resolve '(null)': Name does not resolve

Name:      kubernetes
Address 1: 10.254.0.1 kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local


# nginx-svc 服务

[[email protected] kubeadm]# kubectl exec -it nginx-dm-8665b6b679-28zbw -- nslookup nginx-svc
nslookup: can't resolve '(null)': Name does not resolve

Name:      nginx-svc
Address 1: 10.254.27.199 nginx-svc.default.svc.cluster.local

5. 部署 Metrics-Server

官方 https://github.com/kubernetes-incubator/metrics-server

5.1 Metrics-Server 说明

v1.11 以后不再支持通过 heaspter 采集监控数据,支持新的监控数据采集组件metrics-server,比heaspter轻量很多,也不做数据的持久化存储,提供实时的监控数据查询。

5.1.1 创建 Metrics-Server 文件

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# vi metrics-server.yaml

---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRole
metadata:
  name: system:aggregated-metrics-reader
  labels:
    rbac.authorization.k8s.io/aggregate-to-view: "true"
    rbac.authorization.k8s.io/aggregate-to-edit: "true"
    rbac.authorization.k8s.io/aggregate-to-admin: "true"
rules:
- apiGroups: ["metrics.k8s.io"]
  resources: ["pods", "nodes"]
  verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"]
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: metrics-server:system:auth-delegator
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: system:auth-delegator
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: metrics-server
  namespace: kube-system
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: RoleBinding
metadata:
  name: metrics-server-auth-reader
  namespace: kube-system
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: Role
  name: extension-apiserver-authentication-reader
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: metrics-server
  namespace: kube-system
---
apiVersion: apiregistration.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: APIService
metadata:
  name: v1beta1.metrics.k8s.io
spec:
  service:
    name: metrics-server
    namespace: kube-system
  group: metrics.k8s.io
  version: v1beta1
  insecureSkipTLSVerify: true
  groupPriorityMinimum: 100
  versionPriority: 100
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRole
metadata:
  name: system:metrics-server
rules:
- apiGroups:
  - ""
  resources:
  - pods
  - nodes
  - nodes/stats
  - namespaces
  verbs:
  - get
  - list
  - watch
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: system:metrics-server
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: system:metrics-server
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: metrics-server
  namespace: kube-system
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  name: metrics-server
  namespace: kube-system
---
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: metrics-server
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    k8s-app: metrics-server
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      k8s-app: metrics-server
  template:
    metadata:
      name: metrics-server
      labels:
        k8s-app: metrics-server
    spec:
      serviceAccountName: metrics-server
      volumes:
      # mount in tmp so we can safely use from-scratch images and/or read-only containers
      - name: tmp-dir
        emptyDir: {}
      containers:
      - name: metrics-server
        image: registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/metrics-server-amd64:v0.3.6
        imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
        args:
          - --cert-dir=/tmp
          - --secure-port=4443
        ports:
        - name: main-port
          containerPort: 4443
          protocol: TCP
        securityContext:
          readOnlyRootFilesystem: true
          runAsNonRoot: true
          runAsUser: 1000
        imagePullPolicy: Always
        volumeMounts:
        - name: tmp-dir
          mountPath: /tmp
        command:
          - /metrics-server
          - --kubelet-insecure-tls
          - --kubelet-preferred-address-types=InternalIP
      nodeSelector:
        beta.kubernetes.io/os: linux
        kubernetes.io/arch: "amd64"
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: metrics-server
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    kubernetes.io/name: "Metrics-server"
    kubernetes.io/cluster-service: "true"
spec:
  selector:
    k8s-app: metrics-server
  ports:
  - port: 443
    protocol: TCP
    targetPort: main-port


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# 导入服务

[[email protected] metrics]# kubectl apply -f metrics-server.yaml 
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/system:aggregated-metrics-reader created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/metrics-server:system:auth-delegator created
rolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/metrics-server-auth-reader created
apiservice.apiregistration.k8s.io/v1beta1.metrics.k8s.io created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/system:metrics-server created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/system:metrics-server created
serviceaccount/metrics-server created
serviceaccount/metrics-server unchanged
deployment.apps/metrics-server created
service/metrics-server created

5.1.2 查看服务

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[[email protected] metrics]# kubectl get pods -n kube-system |grep metrics
metrics-server-7b5b7fd65-v8sqc             1/1     Running   0          11s

5.1.3 测试采集

  • 提示 error: metrics not available yet , 请等待一会采集后再查询

  • 查看 pods 的信息

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[[email protected] metrics]# kubectl top pods -n kube-system
NAME                                 CPU(cores)   MEMORY(bytes)   
coredns-546565776c-9zbqz             2m           5Mi             
coredns-546565776c-lz5fs             2m           5Mi             
etcd-k8s-node-1                      27m          75Mi            
etcd-k8s-node-2                      25m          76Mi            
etcd-k8s-node-3                      23m          75Mi            
kube-apiserver-k8s-node-1            21m          272Mi           
kube-apiserver-k8s-node-2            19m          277Mi           
kube-apiserver-k8s-node-3            23m          279Mi           
kube-controller-manager-k8s-node-1   12m          37Mi            
kube-controller-manager-k8s-node-2   2m           12Mi            
kube-controller-manager-k8s-node-3   2m           12Mi            
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-f2ck7          2m           8Mi             
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-g6tp6          2m           8Mi             
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-z2cvb          2m           9Mi             
kube-proxy-9qv4l                     12m          9Mi             
kube-proxy-f29dk                     11m          9Mi             
kube-proxy-zgjnf                     10m          9Mi             
kube-scheduler-k8s-node-1            3m           9Mi             
kube-scheduler-k8s-node-2            2m           8Mi             
kube-scheduler-k8s-node-3            2m           10Mi            
metrics-server-7ff8dccd5b-jsjkk      2m           13Mi            

  • 查看 node 信息
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[[email protected] metrics]# kubectl top nodes
NAME         CPU(cores)   CPU%   MEMORY(bytes)   MEMORY%   
k8s-node-1   110m         5%     1100Mi          28%       
k8s-node-2   97m          4%     1042Mi          27%       
k8s-node-3   94m          4%     1028Mi          26% 

6. Nginx Ingress

官方地址 https://kubernetes.github.io/ingress-nginx/

6.1 Nginx Ingress 介绍

基于 Nginx 使用 Kubernetes ConfigMap 来存储 Nginx 配置文件

6.2 部署 Nginx ingress

6.2.1 下载 yaml 文件

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6.2.2 修改 yaml 文件

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# 替换 阿里 镜像下载地址

sed -i 's/quay\.io\/kubernetes-ingress-controller/registry\.cn-hangzhou\.aliyuncs\.com\/google_containers/g' mandatory.yaml

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# 修改 副本数
spec:
  replicas: 2


# 配置 node affinity 
# 配置 hostNetwork
# 配置 dnsPolicy: ClusterFirstWithHostNet


# 在 如下之间添加
    spec:
      serviceAccountName: nginx-ingress-serviceaccount


# 添加完如下:
    spec:
      hostNetwork: true
      dnsPolicy: ClusterFirstWithHostNet
      affinity:
        nodeAffinity:
          requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
            nodeSelectorTerms:
            - matchExpressions:
              - key: kubernetes.io/hostname
                operator: In
                values:
                - k8s-node-2
                - k8s-node-3
        podAntiAffinity:
          requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
            - labelSelector:
                matchExpressions:
                  - key: app.kubernetes.io/name
                    operator: In
                    values: 
                    - ingress-nginx
              topologyKey: "kubernetes.io/hostname"
      tolerations:
      - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/master
        effect: NoSchedule
      serviceAccountName: nginx-ingress-serviceaccount

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# 如上 affinity 说明

      affinity:  # 声明 亲和性设置
        nodeAffinity: # 声明 为 Node 亲和性设置
          requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:  # 必须满足下面条件
            nodeSelectorTerms: # 声明 为 Node 调度选择标签
            - matchExpressions: # 设置node拥有的标签
              - key: kubernetes.io/hostname  #  kubernetes内置标签
                operator: In   # 操作符
                values:        # 值,既集群 node 名称
                - k8s-node-2
                - k8s-node-3
        podAntiAffinity:  # 声明 为 Pod 亲和性设置
          requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:  # 必须满足下面条件
            - labelSelector:  # 与哪个pod有亲和性,在此设置此pod具有的标签
                matchExpressions:  # 要匹配如下的pod的,标签定义
                  - key: app.kubernetes.io/name  # 标签定义为 空间名称(namespaces)
                    operator: In
                    values:              
                    - ingress-nginx
              topologyKey: "kubernetes.io/hostname"    # 节点所属拓朴域
      tolerations:    # 声明 为 可容忍 的选项
      - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/master    # 声明 标签为 node-role 选项
        effect: NoSchedule                     # 声明 node-role 为 NoSchedule 也可容忍
      serviceAccountName: nginx-ingress-serviceaccount

  • 添加一个 svc 用于解决如下错误问题
    • err services "ingress-nginx" not found
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apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: ingress-nginx
  namespace: ingress-nginx
spec:
  type: ClusterIP
  ports:
  - name: http
    port: 80
    targetPort: 80
    protocol: TCP
  - name: https
    port: 443
    targetPort: 443
    protocol: TCP
  selector:
    app: ingress-nginx

6.2.3 apply 导入 文件

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[[email protected] ingress]# kubectl apply -f mandatory.yaml
namespace/ingress-nginx created
configmap/nginx-configuration created
configmap/tcp-services created
configmap/udp-services created
serviceaccount/nginx-ingress-serviceaccount created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/nginx-ingress-clusterrole created
role.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/nginx-ingress-role created
rolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/nginx-ingress-role-nisa-binding created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/nginx-ingress-clusterrole-nisa-binding created
deployment.apps/nginx-ingress-controller created
limitrange/ingress-nginx created

6.2.4 查看服务状态

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[[email protected] ingress]# kubectl get pods -n ingress-nginx -o wide
NAME                                        READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE     IP             NODE         NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
nginx-ingress-controller-5d5b986984-lxsng   1/1     Running   0          2m16s   10.18.77.218   k8s-node-3   <none>           <none>
nginx-ingress-controller-5d5b986984-t8tvx   1/1     Running   0          53s     10.18.77.117   k8s-node-2   <none>           <none>

6.2.5 测试 ingress

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# 查看之前创建的 Nginx

[[email protected] ingress]# kubectl get svc
NAME         TYPE        CLUSTER-IP      EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)   AGE
kubernetes   ClusterIP   10.254.0.1      <none>        443/TCP   74m
nginx-svc    ClusterIP   10.254.52.255   <none>        80/TCP    19m

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# 创建一个 nginx-svc 的 ingress


vi nginx-ingress.yaml

apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  name: nginx-ingress
spec:
  rules:
  - host: nginx.jicki.me
    http:
      paths:
      - backend:
          serviceName: nginx-svc
          servicePort: 80

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# 导入 yaml
[[email protected] kubeadm]# kubectl apply -f nginx-ingress.yaml 
ingress.extensions/nginx-ingress created


# 查看 ingress
[[email protected] kubeadm]# kubectl get ingress
NAME            CLASS    HOSTS            ADDRESS   PORTS   AGE
nginx-ingress   <none>   nginx.jicki.me             80      34s


6.2.6 测试访问

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[[email protected] kubeadm]# curl -I nginx.jicki.me
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server: nginx/1.17.8
Date: Mon, 30 Mar 2020 08:54:56 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 612
Connection: keep-alive
Vary: Accept-Encoding
Last-Modified: Tue, 03 Mar 2020 17:36:53 GMT
ETag: "5e5e95b5-264"
Accept-Ranges: bytes

7. Dashboard

官方 https://github.com/kubernetes/dashboard

7.1 Dashboard 介绍

Dashboard 是 Kubernetes 集群的 通用 WEB UI 它允许用户管理集群中运行的应用程序并对其进行故障排除,以及管理集群本身。

7.2 部署 Dashboard

注意 dashboard 1.10.x 版本 不支持 kubernetes 1.16.x 以上的必须使用 2.0 版本否则报错

404 the server could not find the requested resource

目前 Dashboard 已经进入 rc6 阶段

7.2.1 下载 yaml 文件

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# 下载 yaml 文件

https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/dashboard/v2.0.0-rc6/aio/deploy/recommended.yaml

7.2.2 apply 导入文件

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[[email protected] dashboard]# kubectl apply -f recommended.yaml 
namespace/kubernetes-dashboard created
serviceaccount/kubernetes-dashboard created
service/kubernetes-dashboard created
secret/kubernetes-dashboard-certs created
secret/kubernetes-dashboard-csrf created
secret/kubernetes-dashboard-key-holder created
configmap/kubernetes-dashboard-settings created
role.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/kubernetes-dashboard created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/kubernetes-dashboard created
rolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/kubernetes-dashboard created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/kubernetes-dashboard created
deployment.apps/kubernetes-dashboard created
service/dashboard-metrics-scraper created
deployment.apps/dashboard-metrics-scraper created

7.2.3 查看服务状态

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[[email protected] dashboard]# kubectl get pods -n kubernetes-dashboard |grep dashboard
dashboard-metrics-scraper-779f5454cb-8m5p5   1/1     Running   0          19s
kubernetes-dashboard-64686c4bf9-bwvvj        1/1     Running   0          19s


# svc 服务
[[email protected] dashboard]# kubectl get svc -n kubernetes-dashboard |grep dashboard
dashboard-metrics-scraper   ClusterIP   10.254.39.66    <none>        8000/TCP   43s
kubernetes-dashboard        ClusterIP   10.254.53.202   <none>        443/TCP    44s

7.2.4 暴露公网

访问 kubernetes 服务,既暴露 kubernetes 内的端口到 外网,有很多种方案

  1. LoadBlancer ( 支持的公有云服务的负载均衡 )

  2. NodePort (映射所有 node 中的某个端口,暴露到公网中)

  3. Ingress ( 支持反向代理软件的对外服务, 如: Nginx , HAproxy 等)

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# 由于我们已经部署了 Nginx-ingress 所以这里使用 ingress 来暴露出去

  • 部署好 dashboard 以后会生成一个 自签的证书

    • kubernetes-dashboard-certs 后面 ingress 会使用到这个证书
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[[email protected] dashboard]# kubectl get secret -n kubernetes-dashboard
NAME                               TYPE                                  DATA   AGE
default-token-nnn5x                kubernetes.io/service-account-token   3      6m32s
kubernetes-dashboard-certs         Opaque                                0      6m32s
kubernetes-dashboard-csrf          Opaque                                1      6m32s
kubernetes-dashboard-key-holder    Opaque                                2      6m32s
kubernetes-dashboard-token-7plmf   kubernetes.io/service-account-token   3      6m32s

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# 创建 dashboard ingress

# 这里面 annotations 中的 backend 声明,从 v0.21.0 版本开始变更, 一定注意
# nginx-ingress < v0.21.0 使用 nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/secure-backends: "true"
# nginx-ingress > v0.21.0 使用 nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/backend-protocol: "HTTPS"


# 创建 ingress 文件

vi dashboard-ingress.yaml


apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
  annotations:
    ingress.kubernetes.io/ssl-passthrough: "true"
    nginx.ingress.kubernetes.io/backend-protocol: "HTTPS"
spec:
  tls:
  - hosts:
    - dashboard.jicki.me
    secretName: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
  rules:
  - host: dashboard.jicki.me
    http:
      paths:
      - path: /
        backend:
          serviceName: kubernetes-dashboard
          servicePort: 443

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# 导入 yaml
[[email protected] dashboard]# kubectl apply -f dashboard-ingress.yaml
ingress.extensions/kubernetes-dashboard created

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# 查看 ingress

[[email protected] dashboard]# kubectl get ingress -n kubernetes-dashboard
NAME                   CLASS    HOSTS                ADDRESS   PORTS     AGE
kubernetes-dashboard   <none>   dashboard.jicki.me             80, 443   2m53s

7.2.6 测试访问

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[[email protected] dashboard]# curl -I -k https://dashboard.jicki.me
HTTP/2 200 
server: nginx/1.17.8
date: Mon, 30 Mar 2020 09:41:02 GMT
content-type: text/html; charset=utf-8
content-length: 1287
vary: Accept-Encoding
accept-ranges: bytes
cache-control: no-store
last-modified: Fri, 13 Mar 2020 13:43:54 GMT
strict-transport-security: max-age=15724800; includeSubDomains

7.2.7 令牌 登录认证

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# 创建一个 dashboard rbac 超级用户

vi dashboard-admin-rbac.yaml


---
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-admin
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-admin
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: cluster-admin
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-admin
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard

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# 导入文件
[[email protected] dashboard]# kubectl apply -f dashboard-admin-rbac.yaml 
serviceaccount/kubernetes-dashboard-admin created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/kubernetes-dashboard-admin created

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# 查看 secret

[[email protected] dashboard]# kubectl get secret -n kubernetes-dashboard | grep kubernetes-dashboard-admin
kubernetes-dashboard-admin-token-9dkg4   kubernetes.io/service-account-token   3      38s

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# 查看 token 部分

[[email protected] dashboard]# kubectl describe -n kubernetes-dashboard secret/kubernetes-dashboard-admin-token-9dkg4
Name:         kubernetes-dashboard-admin-token-9dkg4
Namespace:    kubernetes-dashboard
Labels:       <none>
Annotations:  kubernetes.io/service-account.name: kubernetes-dashboard-admin
              kubernetes.io/service-account.uid: aee23b33-43a4-4fb4-b498-6c2fb029d63c

Type:  kubernetes.io/service-account-token

Data
====
ca.crt:     1025 bytes
namespace:  20 bytes
token:      eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IlI4UlpGcTcwR2hkdWZfZWk1X0RUcVI5dkdraXFnNW8yYUV1VVRPQlJYMEkifQ.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.oyvo_bIM0Ukbs3ov8XbmJffpdK1nec7oKJBxu8V4vesPY_keQhNS9xiAw6zdF2Db2tiEzcpmN3SAgwGjfid5rlSQxGpNK3mkp1r60WSAhyU5e7RqwA9xRO-EtCZ2akrqFKzEn4j_7FGwbKbNsdRurDdOLtKU5KvFsFh5eRxvB6PECT2mgSugfHorrI1cYOw0jcQKE_hjVa94xUseYX12PyGQfoUyC6ZhwIBkRnCSNdbcb0VcGwTerwysR0HFvozAJALh_iOBTDYDUNh94XIRh2AHCib-KVoJt-e2jUaGH-Z6yniLmNr15q5xLfNBd1qPpZHCgoJ1JYz4TeF6udNxIA

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# 复制 token 如下部分:

token:      eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IlI4UlpGcTcwR2hkdWZfZWk1X0RUcVI5dkdraXFnNW8yYUV1VVRPQlJYMEkifQ.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.oyvo_bIM0Ukbs3ov8XbmJffpdK1nec7oKJBxu8V4vesPY_keQhNS9xiAw6zdF2Db2tiEzcpmN3SAgwGjfid5rlSQxGpNK3mkp1r60WSAhyU5e7RqwA9xRO-EtCZ2akrqFKzEn4j_7FGwbKbNsdRurDdOLtKU5KvFsFh5eRxvB6PECT2mgSugfHorrI1cYOw0jcQKE_hjVa94xUseYX12PyGQfoUyC6ZhwIBkRnCSNdbcb0VcGwTerwysR0HFvozAJALh_iOBTDYDUNh94XIRh2AHCib-KVoJt-e2jUaGH-Z6yniLmNr15q5xLfNBd1qPpZHCgoJ1JYz4TeF6udNxIA

7.2.8

浏览器访问

图1

FAQ

  • Failed to get system container stats for "/system.slice/docker.service": failed to get cgroup stats 错误

  • 推测是由于 kubernetes 版本与 docker 版本不兼容导致的问题

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# 打开10-kuberadm.conf 文件
vi /usr/lib/systemd/system/kubelet.service.d/10-kubeadm.conf

# 添加如下:

Environment="KUBELET_CGROUP_ARGS=--cgroup-driver=systemd --runtime-cgroups=/systemd/system.slice --kubelet-cgroups=/systemd/system.slice"
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# 加载配置
systemctl daemon-reload

# 重启 kubelet
systemctl restart kubelet

修改 node 名称

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vi /var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env

# 修改其中的 --hostname-override= 变量


# 重启 kubelet

systemctl daemon-reload 

systemctl restart kubelet


# 删除旧的 node

kubectl delete no nod-name


# 查看 csr

[[email protected] kubeadm]# kubectl get csr
NAME        AGE   SIGNERNAME                                    REQUESTOR               CONDITION
csr-nzhlq   17s   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   system:node:localhost   Pending


# 通过 csr
[[email protected] kubeadm]# kubectl certificate approve csr-nzhlq 



# 通过以后再查看 node
[[email protected] kubeadm]# kubectl get nodes
NAME         STATUS     ROLES    AGE   VERSION
k8s-node-1   NotReady   <none>   8s    v1.18.0


# 需要等待一段时间等待状态
[[email protected] kubeadm]# kubectl get nodes
NAME         STATUS   ROLES    AGE   VERSION
k8s-node-1   Ready    <none>   63s   v1.18.0